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Decoding Sirtuins and NAD connection
Decoding Sirtuins and NAD connection

In this article, we will dive into the world of sirtuins and explore the different ways to activate them.

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Written by Parth Amin
Updated over a week ago

Sirtuins and NAD

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the concept of anti-ageing and prolonging a healthy lifestyle. One of the key players in this discussion is the relationship between sirtuins and NAD. These two compounds have been found to work together in promoting cellular health and extending lifespan.

Sirtuins and NAD are both naturally occurring molecules in our cells. Sirtuins are a type of protein that are involved in various cellular processes, including gene expression, DNA repair, and metabolism. NAD, on the other hand, is a coenzyme that plays a crucial role in cellular energy production. Together, these two compounds work synergistically to promote cellular health and protect against age-related diseases.

First, Meet the Sirtuin Family

Sirtuins are a family of protein enzymes that play a crucial role in regulating cellular health in mammals. There are seven sirtuins in total - SIRT1, SIRT2, SIRT3, SIRT4, SIRT5, SIRT6, and SIRT7 - each of which serves a unique role in maintaining homeostasis or balance in our cells. This means that sirtuins regulate important processes such as ageing, inflammation, detoxification, stress resistance, metabolism, circadian rhythms, and mitochondrial biogenesis. They also can control other genes and respond to various environmental factors. In short, sirtuins are essential for maintaining our overall health and are often associated with longevity. They are a family of enzymes found in almost all organisms, including humans.

How Do Sirtuin Work?

Sirtuins work by removing specific chemical groups from other proteins, a process known as deacetylation. This action can turn certain genes on or off, affecting how cells respond to stress and damage. It's like flipping switches to activate or deactivate various cell functions.

Their Role of Sirtuin in Longevity

Sirtuins are known for their role in promoting longevity and healthy ageing. They help maintain DNA stability, control inflammation, regulate metabolism, and even assist in repairing damaged DNA. By doing these, they keep cells healthier for longer, which contributes to overall longevity.

Connection of Sirtuin with NAD+

But here's the catch - sirtuins can only function properly when NAD is present. This is because they are known as NAD-dependent enzymes, meaning they rely on NAD to carry out their regulatory functions. NAD, or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, is a molecule that plays a crucial role in cellular metabolism. It naturally declines with age, and this decline is associated with a decrease in overall health and vitality, as well as an increased risk of age-related diseases such as heart disease and metabolic disorders. The decline in NAD also has a direct impact on the function of sirtuins, further contributing to the ageing process.

This can create a vicious cycle - as NAD decreases, so does the function of sirtuins, which leads to a decline in mitochondrial gene expression. This decline has been linked to the ageing process and highlights the crucial role of NAD and sirtuins in cellular health.

Where Does NMN Fit In?

Now, you may be wondering where NMN comes into the equation. NMN, or nicotinamide mononucleotide, is a precursor to NAD and has been shown to effectively raise NAD levels in the body. By supplementing with NMN, you can support the production of NAD and help maintain the proper function of sirtuins. This ultimately leads to better cellular health and may help combat the effects of ageing.

Infographic of Sirtuins in human cell that activate NAD

How Do Sirtuins Affect Ageing?

Sirtuins work by regulating gene expression and the activity of other proteins in the body. They are involved in a number of key cellular processes, including DNA repair, metabolism, and stress response. As we age, the function of sirtuins can decline, which can lead to various age-related diseases and a shorter lifespan.

Resveratrol. Resveratrol is a plant compound that has been extensively researched for its potential to activate sirtuins and promote their function. It is a polyphenol found in nuts and grapes and is also present in red wine. Studies have shown that resveratrol stimulates a specific sirtuin known as SIRT-1, which has been found to have antioxidant effects and improve insulin resistance. It also supports the body's muscular and nervous systems.

Pterostilbene. Pterostilbene is another polyphenol that has been found to activate sirtuins. It is similar to resveratrol but with a slight structural difference. Found in blueberries, pterostilbene has been shown to have similar effects on SIRT-1 as resveratrol.

NMN. One of the significant effects of increasing NAD+ levels through NMN supplementation is the enhancement of sirtuin activity, particularly SIRT2. Sirtuins, including SIRT2, are a family of proteins that play a crucial role in ageing and longevity. They are involved in various cellular processes such as transcription regulation, energy metabolism modulation, cell survival, DNA repair, inflammation, and circadian rhythm regulation. By boosting NAD+ levels, NMN doesn't only increase cellular energy but also enhances the activity of SIRT2, which is vital for maintaining cellular health and function. This interaction suggests that NMN could help in delaying or reversing age-related changes in the body. NMN can be taken as a supplement and has been found to have numerous health benefits. If you're interested in trying NMN, it's important to do your research and choose a product that is backed by scientific evidence to ensure you get all the benefits of NAD.

Curcumin. Curcumin is a flavonoid found in turmeric, long known for its anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies have also found that it has the ability to activate over half of the sirtuins found in mammals.

Exercise. Regular exercise is known to have numerous health benefits, and one of them is its ability to increase sirtuin levels. Studies have shown that regular physical activity can promote the levels of sirtuins in the body, contributing to a longer and healthier lifespan.

Calorie Restriction and Intermittent Fasting. Calorie restriction and intermittent fasting are two popular dietary approaches that have been linked to longevity and overall health. Both methods have been found to boost the production of sirtuins, contributing to a longer and healthier life.

In Summary

Research on sirtuins is still relatively new, but studies have shown that they play a crucial role in controlling ageing and increasing lifespan. It is clear that sirtuins are intimately connected to NAD, a molecule that is essential for their function. With the help of various substances such as resveratrol, ergothioneine, pterostilbene, NMN, and curcumin, as well as healthy lifestyle practices like regular exercise and calorie restriction, we can activate sirtuins and promote their function to live a longer and healthier life.

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